Domain Names:

It was 1983 when ARPA planned to introduce Domain Names starting from ARPA and DDN. These Domains were allowed in control delegation of authority and responsibility for adding hosts to Internet System. Subdivisions for second level and third level were also allowed on the basis of administrative authority delegation. Thus the primary root level domains were also called Top Level Domain Names.
Domain names were supported in the long run by a system of special servers called “Domain Name Servers” (DNS), which are used to translate domain or host names to IP addresses. The domain name server design also provides for mapping mailbox addresses to the host name of the mail server for that mailbox. For more ref:, rfc882, ref883.
Domains are administrative entities. The purpose and expected use of domains is to divide the name from a central administration and assign it to sub-administrations. There are no geographical, topological, or technological constraints on a domain to access. The hosts of domains do not require any particular hardware or software, nor even fixed protocols. The domain system is a tree-structured global name space that has a few top level domains. The top level domains are subdivided into second level domains. The second level domains would be subdivided into third level domains, and so on.

The initial top level domain names were:
Temporary TLD:
ARPA = The current ARPA-Internet hosts.
Categories TLDs:
GOV = Government, any government related domains meeting the second level requirements.
EDU = Education, any education related domains meeting the second level requirements.
COM = Commercial, any commercial related domains meeting the second level requirements.
MIL = Military, any military related domains meeting the second level requirements.
ORG = Organization, any other domains meeting the second level requirements.
TLDs for Countries: It was planned that the English two letter code (alpha-2) identifying a country according the ISO Standard for “Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries” will be used for a Country Code Top Level Domain Names (ccTLDs). For more ref (1984):

WHOIS Record:
While establishing the TLDs, it was mandatory to provide Administrative and Technical Contact Information. For example the first Administrator information was as follows:

Domain Administrator:
Organization USC/Information Sciences Institute
Name:                         Keith Uncapher
Title:                           Executive Director
Mail Address:          USC/ISI
4676 Admiralty Way, Suite 1001
Marina del Rey, CA. 90292-6695

Phone Number:    213-822-1511
Net Mailbox:         Uncapher@USC-ISIB.ARPA
NIC-Ident:             KU

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) was the overall authority for the IP Addresses, the Domain Names, and many other parameters, used in the Internet. The day-to-day responsibility for the assignment of IP Addresses, Autonomous System Numbers, and most top and second level Domain Names are handled by the Internet Registry (IR) and regional registries. IANA was also responsible for the delegation of portions of the name space called top-level domains. Most of these top-level domains are two-letter country codes taken from the ISO standard 3166.
Initially central Internet Registry (IR) has been selected and designated to handle the bulk requirements of the day-to-day administration of the Domain Name System. Applications for new top-level domains (for example, country code domains) were handled by the IR with consultation with the IANA. All requests for new top-level domains were sent to the INTERNIC (at, the regional registries were often enlisted to assist in the administration of the DNS, especially in solving problems with a country administration.
The regional registries administrations were allocated to INTERNIC, APNIC and RIPE NCC. A new country code top-level domain is usually created on request from a country and its management delegated to a “designated manager”, all at once for supervising that domain’s name space. These designated authorities are trustees for the delegated domain, and have a duty to serve the community. The designated manager is the trustee of the top-level domain for both the nation, in the case of a country code, and the global Internet community. Concerns about “rights” and “ownership” of domains are inappropriate. It is appropriate to be concerned about “responsibilities” and “service” to the community. The designated manager must be equitable to all groups in the domain that request domain names. It was also mandatory that the designated manager must do a satisfactory job of operating the DNS service for the domain. For more ref (1994):

Rights to Names:

Names and Trademarks: In case of a dispute between domain name registrants as to the rights to a particular name, the registration authority shall have no role or responsibility other than to provide the contact information to both parties. The registration of a domain name does not have any Trademark status. It is up to the requestor to be sure he is not violating anyone else’s Trademark.

Country Codes: The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what not a country is. The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list